Evan George Black (1909-1990)

Chapter 2

Manti Years

Four Oldest Sons of George and Lucile Black in 1915. Evan is in the center front. In the back row, beginning on Evan's right are Elmer, Joe, and Elliot

Four Oldest Sons of George and Lucile Black in 1915.
Evan is front and center. In the back row, beginning on Evan’s right are Elmer, Joe, and Elliot

In the middle of the 1913-1914 school year, presumably during the Christmas break, Evan, almost five years old, accompanied his mother and siblings as they packed up and moved to Manti, Utah, where they took up residence in early January 1914. Father George would remain in Coyote temporarily, doubtlessly wrapping up the family’s affairs; he joined his wife and children in Manti a few months later, on 5 July.[1]

As Manti was about ten times more populous than Coyote,[2] it presented greater opportunities for cultural and academic pursuits, significant advantages in the civilizing of impressionable young minds. Relocation to Manti must have, at least in part, reflected the family’s desire to provide a better education for its growing flock of children. Although Utah towns of that generation typically offered only an eighth-grade education, especially in rural areas, Manti provided a four-year public high school beginning in 1909. Manti and Nephi were the only towns to provide a high school education in the southern half of Utah at that time.[3]

A significant elementary school, described as “monumental” by a Sanpete County historian and known as the “Red School,” graced the town beginning in 1894. Considered one of the finest grammar schools in Utah, it was also among the largest. Despite its size, a few years after its construction another grade school, the “White School” was built next door to reduce class sizes and overcrowding.[4]

On 14 September 1914, Evan and his twin sister Eva would have excitedly followed the lead of their older brothers, trotting off that Monday morning to the Manti grade school for their first day of formal education. Evan was one of seventy-six Manti kindergarten students, or “Beginners” as they were then known. They received instruction from their teacher, twenty-two-year-old Miss Mabel Francis Dyreng. Miss Dyreng and her students enjoyed the services of an assistant Beginners’ teacher, a Miss Alice Peterson.[5]

Besides academic aspirations, other motivations for the relocation may have found substance in family ties. Evan’s mother, Lucile, had a strong connection to Manti. It was her hometown, where she was born and raised, and where her parents and some siblings still lived. Relationships often provide security and employment connections, and Lucile’s family, the Snows, had been leaders and anchors in Manti from its earliest days.

Lucile’s grandfather, Warren Stone Snow, had been the de facto religious authority and a secular force in town during most of his life, serving as its only bishop for many years, representing the area in the state legislature for several terms, working as town marshal, and fighting as a general in Indian battles.[6] When Lucile moved to Manti, her brother-in-law Albert H. Christensen was the town’s district court judge.

Economically, the move to a larger community may have been a necessity. In January 1913 the business cycle pushed the United States’ economy into stagnation that worsened in 1914. As one modern economist noted, “the recession of 1913 sank into a depression in 1914 with an increase in gold exports, a decline in foreign trade, a weakening of commodity prices, and an increase in unemployment.”[7]

Employment scarcity in tiny towns like Coyote may have driven George and Lucile to Manti. Sanpete County, according to county historians, from the start of the twentieth century through 1918 experienced a “rapid rise of the sheep and wool enterprises over the entire county.”[8] Lucile’s father, Joseph Smith Snow, was a local wool grower.[9] Based on George’s prior experience with managing livestock and his post-Manti focus on sheepherding, it appears possible that George may have joined his father-in-law in the sheep business.[10]

Regardless of their motives for moving, the family found a residence on the same block as Lucile’s father, where they would live during the next four years.[11] As they began life in Lucile’s hometown, that first summer offered a surfeit of activities and events.

Among such activities, the Black children may have taken interest in an unusual competition when viewed through modern eyes, though perhaps typical of the time—a city-sponsored fly-killing contest.

Attracted by outhouses and livestock, the common housefly was epidemic in most Utah communities of that era. Not merely Manti, but several other Utah cities and towns instituted competitions that summer to reduce the fly population, enlisting local children in their quest to rub out the diminutive carriers of typhoid, cholera, dysentery, tuberculosis, and other diseases.

Manti’s version of the contest was a decided success, resulting in the destruction of 150,000 “typhoid disseminators,” as the local newspaper described them. The winner of the grand prize, local child Ruth Madsen, turned in forty thousand of the tiny pests and claimed her reward—one dollar. Distantly behind her, in second and third place, two other indefatigable fly chasers delivered the bodies of seventeen thousand and sixteen thousand Musca Domesticas to the public school building. There, one or more hapless judges—doubtless school teachers who, like the contestants, ironically risked contracting awful illnesses as they handled carcasses—endured the daily dread of receiving, calculating, and recording each child’s carrion catch.

The town of Ogden, Utah held a similar contest in 1914, which reportedly resulted in the death of 8,000,000 flies.[12] Salt Lake City saved itself the work of counting bodies and instead paid a fifteen-cent bounty per pint. Salt Lake City children earned a total of thirty-six dollars for thirty gallons of flies redeemed that summer at the health office.[13] Even outside Utah the collection of flies for prize money must have been a normal part of a child’s everyday life at all levels of society. For example, the phenomenally wealthy John D. Rockefeller, Jr. paid his offspring, who were born about the same time as the Black children, ten cents for every hundred flies they killed.[14]

By the end of the Manti event, on 6 July, thirty-nine children had each captured at least five hundred flies and thereby qualified to receive one free ticket to attend a special silent movie screening at the Manti theatre. The promised feature was an educational documentary about, appropriately, the common housefly.[15]

Unfortunately, when the winning Manti children tried to redeem their tickets to see the fly movie, they were not allowed to do so, as the motion picture had not arrived in Manti.[16] After a few weeks, though, the fly committee located the movie, and the children received their belated reward.[17]

The housefly documentary was just one of many silent movies offered in Manti during the 1910s. In 1909, the manager of the Manti Opera House announced the purchase of an Edison Motion Picture Machine and publicized the sale of ten cent and twenty cent tickets for twice-nightly performances three nights each week during the “summer and dull seasons of the year.”[18] Also in 1909, the Manti Theatre was under construction. After the Theatre opened, it quickly supplanted the Opera House’s movie business, relegating the Opera House to the hosting of other community events such as dances and parties.[19]

Built with brick from the Manti brickyard and with elegant velvet curtains imported from the East,[20] every week the Manti Theatre brought new movies to town, including “riveting” features such as the five-reel production of “Ten Nights in a Bar-room,” a moral tale based upon an 1854 novel about the “evils of intemperance.”[21] Until the Theatre purchased a second picture machine in September 1917, moviegoers waited at the end of each reel for the operator to remove the old reel, place the next spool, feed the film, and restart the projector.[22]

Those willing to endure as many as five breaks during a movie and to wait for their preferred genre to arrive at the theater (it had only one screen) could eventually delight in a variety of motion pictures, according to their tastes. The romantically inclined could enjoy an Italian movie, “Love Everlasting” or “My Love Shall Never Die.”[23] Those seeking a melodrama could watch “Tess of the Storm Country,” in which the world-famous Canadian co-founder of United Artists, Mary Pickford, displayed her acting talent.[24]

1914 Silent Movie, Tess of the Storm Country

For a light-hearted comedy, movie-goers laughed during the classic and often rehashed “Brewster’s Millions,” another five-reel silent story directed by Cecil B. Demille about a man bequeathed seven million dollars on condition that he spend the first million within a year without thereby acquiring anything except receipts. These and numerous other silent pictures were seen at the Theatre on Thursday nights for as little as a dime and no more than fifteen cents.[25]

It is likely that the Black children and their parents may have occasionally spent an evening at the Theatre, enjoying not just the silent movies such as Charlie Chaplin features while an organist or pianist played scene-specific music in the background, but also recurring there to see plays on the Theatre’s stage, one of which was the locally-written “A Voice from the Desert,” a 1915 production that included a sheep inspector among its main characters.[26]

Listening to movie music may have been an impetus for Evan to begin experimenting with the piano and playing musical instruments. More likely, he developed a love of music from his mother and father, who both played the piano. As he sentimentally recounted during a family reunion:

. . . [T]he one thing about Mother that I liked is that she would play the piano and I would stop and listen to her playing the piano at night. Later years, Dad and Mom didn’t do much playing on the piano, but you could always tell when Mother was sad because she would sing songs like “In the Gloaming,” that would make me want to cry.[27]

Although it is not clear whether or when Evan was first introduced to formal piano instruction, his mother may have taught him. Or perhaps he received outside instruction. Such opportunities were available in Manti during the family’s four-year stint in that town. One piano teacher who advertised almost weekly in the Manti Messenger was Miss Nellie Watkins.[28] Brigham Young Academy professor Reid taught a five-week music course during the summer of 1914 to over 60 Manti pupils.[29] Eventually, Evan’s interest in the piano would lead him to procure employment as an accompanist for silent movies, though probably not until at least his teen years.

Music, movies, and flies were just part of the summer fun. A large percentage of Manti residents escaped the summer heat by spending parts of July and August in Manti canyon, a habit that the Manti Messenger termed the “Call of the Wilds,” which would “nearly depopulate our city.”[30] At the head of 12 Mile Canyon, an annual competition was held, beginning in 1912, between Sanpete and Emery counties. The ten-day event consisted of baseball, horseracing, wrestling, boxing, foot races, and similar sports.[31]

Manti was among fifty-one cities participating in a state-wide clean-up contest during the summer of 1914, with the winning city in each class awarded a large drinking fountain. Manti was a class D city, competing against Smithfield, Ephraim, Cedar City, Richmond, Pleasant Grove, Beaver, Bountiful, St. George, and Payson. Manti residents were determined to “be the cleanest town in our class,” and their efforts to motivate clean up extended to even Sunday services, where classes and speeches focused on the need to fix fences, remove weeds and rubbish, trim trees, plant lawns, and otherwise beautify the city.

The judging, scheduled for 17 August 1914, awarded points in thirteen different categories, including disposal of sewage in privies and cesspools, dispersal of manure in stables and corrals, garbage collection, presence of flies, condition of fences, general appearance of homes, sanitary marketing of food, etc. To motivate citizens, Manti offered cash prizes of up to three dollars for the cleanest yard, neatest lawn, most beautiful flower garden, cleanest back yard, most improved place, and most sanitary marketing of foodstuffs. The coordinate effort to beautify and clean-up the town yielded rewards when, in December, the president of the Utah Development League announced Manti as a winning city.[32]

As summer ended, residents celebrated the harvest; the Sanpete County Fair had its start in 1914.[33] The fall fair, an annual event that must have attracted youngsters and adults alike, included exhibits and exhibitions of horses and horse racing, cattle, domestic sciences, sheep, relics, hogs, dairying poultry, horticulture, education, gardening, domestic art, and agriculture.[34] During three days in September, a large tent in the city park displayed the handiwork, produce, and livestock of local residents.[35]

New technology was dramatically improving the quality of life throughout Utah in the early 1900s. Electricity, the impetus that enabled motion pictures, was quickly replacing kerosene, coal oil, and candles for lighting. Electricity first appeared in Manti in 1901, but it was not until after the Blacks’ arrival that Manti installed its first electric streetlights down Main Street during the summer of 1914, dubbing the lit street the “great ‘white way.’”[36]

In May 1907, a Manti committee, whose members included Peter P. Dyreng, the father of Evan’s Beginners teacher,[37] met to propose formation of the Manti Telephone Company and bring telephone technology to town. Lucile’s brother-in-law, Judge Albert H. Christensen, was among the company’s first directors.

The newly organized enterprise lost no time installing a citywide system. Within a month after the initial meeting, Albert Christensen was authorized to buy thirty-foot cedar posts to run down the center of Main Street, and by mid-September sixty-three phones were connected. When the Blacks arrived in Manti, phone service would have been almost ordinary, although probably still novel to the rural Garfield County newcomers.

Until 1918, residential subscribers paid one dollar per month for a “party line,” one that was shared by other homes. For an additional monthly charge of one dollar and fifty cents a private line could be installed. Beginning in 1912 the Manti Theatre housed the telephone operation in its northwest room.

Central operators hand-connected each call, often listening to conversations and passing gossip around town. By May 1916, concern over such gossip caused the company to circulate the following directive to it operators: “Social conversation with parties of a private nature, and not directly in line with the proper discharge of your duty, is absolutely and positively forbidden. It has been indulged in the past, and if it is not discontinued, we will be obliged to make such changes as good service demands.”[38]

Among the noteworthy family-specific events of the Manti years, Lucile gave birth to her eighth child and fourth daughter on 30 May 1916. George and Lucile named their little blond baby Lydia.[39]

The Manti years also produced at least one event that was more devastating than noteworthy in its very personal effect on Evan. Most infamously, Evan suffered a tragic injury that would forever alter his appearance and take a financial toll on the family’s limited resources. As Evan later reported, when he was five or six years old the neighborhood boys “used to choose up sides and have rock fights.” Armed with slingshots, or “flippers” as the boys called them, the prepubescent youngsters would fire stone projectiles at each other, intending to inflict pain on their opponents, but apparently naïve to the possibility of serious injury.

During one such battle, older brother Elliot, who was an enemy combatant on that occasion, scored a knockout blow with a large rock on the right side of Evan’s face, cracking the younger brother’s jawbone. Three operations later, Evan was left without a right-side mandible, a disfiguring disability he endured throughout the rest of his life.

Elliot was understandably remorseful for the permanent damage his actions caused. According to his son Ted, Elliot “spent a lifetime trying to redeem himself.” Elliot “did things for Evan that he would not have done for any other family member . . . .”[40]

The medical costs associated with Evan’s injury and multiple surgeries must have weighed heavily on his parents, who struggled financially throughout their lives. Illustrating their economic burdens, Elliot later told of seemingly unfair treatment by his father.

While living in Manti the family had an old cow that gave birth to twin female calves. George gave one calf to Elmer and one to Elliot. Elmer named his calf Blackie. Elliot’s calf was named Daisy. Oldest brother Joe also had a calf. Later, the calves gave birth to their own offspring, and George sold the boys’ animals and kept the money for himself. At the time the boys were puzzled—perhaps silently upset—that they did not receive the money. “Later,” as Elliot recalled, “we understood that we had to do all we could to keep things together and keep the family going. Times were hard and it was hard to make ends meet unless we pitched in and helped.”[41]

Evan, like many children, could exhibit naughtiness, sometimes manifest in creative pranks. Self-deprecatingly, Evan described his childhood persona as “mean as a dog.” Although likely exaggerating for effect the extent of his malevolence, Evan was not the model of kindness in all circumstances. In one instance a quasi-sadistic imagination led him to catch chickens and hang them upside down by their talons on the clothesline. As he later remembered, he took pleasure in hearing the string of chickens squawking noisily during their traumatic ordeal.[42]

Mischievous fun at others’ expense was not limited to animals. Evan remembered playing a game in Manti called IGH. A group of children would set a bonfire in the middle of the road and play hide and seek. As the night wore on and the clique of friends tired of the game, inevitably an uninitiated child would wander onto the scene and join in the fun. Seeing an opportunity to confuse the newcomer, the experienced players would pass the word to everyone but the unenlightened outsider that the game had changed to IGH (I Go Home). As the naïve, newly arrived player took his turn as seeker, the other players quietly went home and left the ignorant novice alone in the dark to vainly search.[43]

On another occasion, in Manti, Evan and his cousin Edgar Snow both about age seven or eight, went to the barnyard and, with matches, built little fires between two large haystacks. As Evan explained the dangerous fun, “Just as the fires started burning, we’d pound them out with the scoop shovel.” After starting and smothering five or six such fires between the haystacks, the boys moved on to the cow shed, where they built another such fire. As they were pounding out that fire, leaving a hole in the wooden shed floor, their grandfather Joseph Smith Snow wandered in and caught the young arsonists.

Although he scolded them, Grandpa Snow left the heavy lifting to the boys’ mothers, who were instructed to punish them more severely. To chasten him, Evan’s mother, Lillian, obtained two willow branches. One she kept; the other she handed to Evan. After lashing him a couple of times with her branch, Lillian demanded that Evan hit her back. Evan refused. Lillian again whipped her son and then again asked Evan to do the same to her. Evan again refused to hit his mother. Finally, after repeating this process several times, Lillian demanded to know why her son would not retaliate. Evan replied, as only a seven-year-old could, “I love you and I don’t want to hit you.” Overcome with emotion and filled with remorse, Lillian wept openly.[44]

Evan was the not the only mischievous boy in his family. His older brothers, especially Elliot and Elmer, were probably the catalyst for some of Evan’s pranks, and they instigated many of their own. During one of their Manti summers, when Elmer and Elliot were about eight or nine years old, their parents sent them to Coyote where they stayed with their Black grandparents. As Elmer later recounted:

We got to playing around in the afternoon and went down to the corral. They had been branding some stock there, so we got the branding iron out. We blacked that all up with charcoal. Elliot branded me on the hip, minus my clothes. This was alright if he hadn’t of heated the doggone thing. And I have the scars to prove it.[45]     

If the children found pleasure in creative hijinks, their parents assuredly hoped to compose and tame them through religious training. During that era Latter-day Saint religious services were more frequent and longer than in the modern church, although they were also, in many respects, more secular than their modern counterparts.

During the Manti years, oldest brother Joseph was ordained a deacon and would have begun attending Priesthood meetings. From 1908 until 1930 those meetings were held on Monday nights. Sundays began with morning Sunday School for all members, ninety minutes in length. In the afternoon the ward held a ninety-minute Sacrament meeting. The youth met for MIA on Sunday evenings and also on weekdays. The Primary organization, for younger children, met mid-week after school. The Relief Society organization also met on a weekday.[46]

The Sunday School published its own materials and had several teaching departments. The Primary department, designed for children, received standardized and orthodox religious instruction, including lessons from Christ’s life,[47] the Book of Mormon, and Joseph Smith’s life, in addition to seasonally-relevant topics such as Mother’s Day, Thanksgiving, etc.[48]

Adult classes generally designated different adults each week to write, present, and read an original paper or a short talk about a subject, followed by a germane class discussion. For those occasions when a class member forgot to prepare a paper, the Deseret Sunday School Union published books of topics. For example, in the Parents’ Department, Sunday School manuals included a variety of child-raising papers, including essays on seemingly secular topics such as general child culture, cooking and regularity of meals, beds and bedrooms, home decorations and furniture, evenings at home, late hours, parental punishment of children, play, work at home, work away from home, and personal cleanliness.[49] In Manti, original presentation included such topics as fashion,[50] woman’s dress,[51] getting acquainted with neighbors,[52] the proper Christmas spirit,[53] the high school girl,[54] the home garden,[55] and even a book by a Dr. McKeever regarding girls’ clothing.[56]

The Primary Association, for prepubescent children, began church wide in 1880. Its initial purpose was to provide instruction and activities for younger children during the week while their older siblings and parents worked on the farm. Its organizer, Aurelia Spencer Rogers, felt that pre-teen boys were becoming unruly and mischievous. Early classes taught boys not to steal fruit from orchards and taught girls not to hang on wagons, in addition to other meritorious principles of behavior and comportment.[57]

One rite of passage for all eight-year-old Mormon children was baptism. When Evan and his siblings turned eight, they enjoyed the privilege of being baptized in the nearby Manti Temple font. A temple baptism was an unusual prerogative, as most children were baptized in lakes, rivers, or ward house fonts. Only four LDS communities boasted an operational temple at the time: St. George, Logan, Manti, and Salt Lake City. Elliot and Elmer received the ordinance on 10 February 1915.[58] Evan and his twin sister, Eva, were baptized in the temple font on 15 March 1917. Soren P. Jensen performed the baptisms. Ezra Shoemaker confirmed Evan, and temple president Lewis Anderson confirmed Eva.[59]

Of international significance, 28 July 1914 saw the outbreak of what was first known as the European War and then called the Great War—renamed World War I after the outbreak of World War II. Throughout the duration of the conflict, the local newspaper usually devoted as much as two of its eight pages to war news.

The war produced a forty-four-month economic surge as Europe and, eventually, the United States, snapped up U.S. goods to meet war-time needs. The boom undoubtedly helped ease any residual financial stresses the Blacks were suffering from the 1913-1914 recession. War also revived Coyote’s mining industry, which was based on antimony—a strategic metal of military importance during the war. Perhaps these factors emboldened George to break away from his father-in-law’s domain, strike out on his own, and return to his hometown.

Conceivably, other unexplained circumstances were also in play, because in mid-March 1918, with more than two months left before school would end, and after less than four years in Manti, George and Lucile pulled their children out of school, packed up the family, and moved back to Coyote.[60]

Before they left, friends and family said goodbye and demonstrated their affection for the young couple and their children. As the Manti Messenger reported, the Blacks were guests at several farewell parties, “including a family supper at the home of A[lbert] H. Christiansen,” the local district court judge, and Lucile’s brother-in-law, on 11 March 1918.[61]

In Coyote, the family would lose many of the amenities and advantages they enjoyed in Manti, but for unexplained reasons George and Lucile must have decided that the benefits of a move back to George’s hometown outweighed any discommodities.

[1] The Manti North Ward records reported that Lucile and the children moved into the ward on 4 January 1914, but father George did not join the ward until 5 July 1914. Manti North Ward, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “Record of Members, 1877-1941,” page 51, entries for George King Black and Sarah Lucile Snow Black family. FHL microfilm 26,131.

[2] Using 1910 US Census population calculations, Coyote was home to 229 inhabitants in 1910, whereas Manti housed 2,437 people that same year.

[3] “South Sanpete School District – Manti High School History,” https://www.ssanpete.org/index.php/school-info/mhs-school-history/534-manti-high-school-history, accessed 7 October 2013.

[4] Albert C. T. Antrei, A History of Sanpete County (No place: Utah State Historical Society, 1999), 186, 190.

[5] “Looks Like Good Year for Schools,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 17 September 1914, page 5, column 3. “United States Census, 1910,” index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/M5X4-JBY : accessed 8 Oct 2013), Mabel F Dyreng in entry for Peter P Dyreng, 1910. “Mabel Francis Dyreng Keller (1892 – 1971) – Find A Grave Memorial,” Find A Grave (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=43970345 : accessed 8 October 2013), memorial no. 43970345. “Mabel Keller Dies; Rites Set in Price,” The Daily Herald (Provo, Utah), Friday, 20 August 1971, page 2, column 2.

[6] Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah, Volume Four (Salt Lake City, Utah: George Q. Cannon & Sons Co., October 1904), 188-189.

[7] Douglas Fitzgerald Dowd, U.S. Capitalist Development Since 1776: Of, By, and for Which People? (Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1993), 149.

[8] Albert C. T. Antrei and Allen D. Roberts, A History of Sanpete County (Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah State Historical Society, 1999), 103.

[9] Utah State Gazeteer and Business Directory 1903-1904, Volume 2 (Salt Lake City, Utah: Tribune Printing Co., 1903), 188 (listing Joseph Smith Snow and his brother G[ardner] E[lisha] Snow as a wool grower in Manti).

[10] Elliot R. Black, Elliot R. Black with Excerpts from Family History (No place: No publisher, no date), 91 (The Life of George King Black, p. 4).

[11] Manti North Ward records indicate that the family lived in Manti from 1914 until 9 March 1918. Manti North Ward, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “Record of Members, page 51, entries for members of George King Black family. FHL microfilm 26,131. Brother Elliot’s autobiography indicates that the family lived in Manti for about five years. Elliot R. Black, “Sarah Lucile Snow” in Elliot R. Black with Excerpts from Family History (No place: no publisher, no date), section vii, page 138 (numbered as page 3 of Sarah Lucille Snow’s history).

[12] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 10 July 1914, page 3, column 1.

[13] “The Utah Budget,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 21 August 1914, page 2, column 1.

[14] Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. (New York: Vintage Books, 2010), 629.

[15] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday, 3 July 1914, page 5, column 2; Friday, 10 July 1914, page 1, columns 3-4. Although the newspaper does not record name of the promised movies, several short films about flies were produced in the 1910s. Among them an American film, The Fly Pest and a 1911 British comedy called Scroggins and the Fly Pest. Bamforth Films and director Cecil Birch released a British silent comedy called Kill That Fly in 1914. The film was eight minutes long. See Imbd.com for additional information on these short movies. See also Rachel Low, The History of British Film 1914-1918 Volume 3 (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1950), 146

[16] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 10 July 1914, page 5, column 3.

[17] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 24 July 1914, page 5, column 3.

[18] “Moving Picture Attraction,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Thursday, 18 March 1909, page 5, column 1.

[19] “The New Theatre Build Front High,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Thursday, 30 September 1909, page 4, column 6; “The 11th at the Opera House,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday, 1 July 1910, page 4, column 4

[20] Eleanor Madsen, “The Manti Theater,” Manti Sesquicentennial 1849-1997 and Entries from the Manti-Sanpete Writing Contest (No place: No publisher, 1999), 93.

[21] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 3 July 1914, page 5, column 2 and page 8, column 4.

[22] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 7 September 1917, page 5, column 3.

[23] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 17 July 1914, page 5, column 2.

[24] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 7 August 1914, page 5, column 2.

[25] “Brewsters Millions,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 14 July 1914, page 1, column 1.

[26] “Manti Theatre Tonight: ‘A Voice From The Desert,’” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 13 August 1915, page 4, columns 3-4.

[27] Elliot R. Black, Elliot R. Black with Excerpts from Family History (No place: No publisher, no date), 119 (Family Reunion of Family of George K. Black and Sarah Lucile Snow, p. 16). Minor punctuation and spelling corrections silently added.

[28] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 3 July 1914, page 5, column 4.

[29] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 7 August 1914, page 5, column 3.

[30] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 17 July 1914, page 5, column 2.

[31] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 17 July 1914, page 8, column 4.

[32] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 10 July 1914, page 4, column 2. Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 17 July 1914, page 1, column 5 and page 4 column 3. Clean Town Contest Home Stretch Week,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 7 August 1914, page 1, columns 1-2. “The Drinking Fountain,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 12 December 1914, page 4, column 3.

[33] “The Utah Budget,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 28 August 1914, page 7, column 5.

[34] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 17 July 1914, page 1, columns 3-5.

[35] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 31 July 1914, page 8, column 1.

[36] Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), Friday 14 July 1914, page 1, column 1.

[37] “United States Census, 1910,” index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/M5X4-JBY: accessed 8 Oct 2013), Mabel F Dyreng in entry for Peter P Dyreng, 1910.

[38] Norma S. Wanlass Barton, “The Manti Telephone Company,” Saga of the Sanpitch, vol. 27 (Manti, Utah: Messenger-Enterprise, 1995), 40-41.

[39] The Deseret News (Salt Lake City, Utah), Saturday, 29 January 2005.

[40] 1987 Audio Interviews of Evan George Black conducted by Glenda Joyce Memmott Black and Beverly Black and consisting of two cassette tapes (four sides) of recorded material. Original cassette tapes are in the author’s possession in 2013. The author has placed digital copies online at Archive.org (https://archive.org/details/1987RecordingSide1). Ted Black, email message to author, 17 April 2013.

[41] Elliot R. Black, Elliot R. Black with Excerpts from Family History (No place: No publisher, no date), 12.

[42] 1987 Audio Interviews of Evan George Black conducted by Glenda Joyce Memmott Black and Beverly Black and consisting of two cassette tapes (four sides) of recorded material. Original cassette tapes are in the author’s possession in 2013. The author has placed digital copies online at Archive.org (https://archive.org/details/1987RecordingSide1).

[43] 1987 Audio Interviews of Evan George Black conducted by Glenda Joyce Memmott Black and Beverly Black and consisting of two cassette tapes (four sides) of recorded material. Original cassette tapes are in the author’s possession in 2013. The author has placed digital copies online at Archive.org (https://archive.org/details/1987RecordingSide1).

[44] 1987 Audio Interviews of Evan George Black conducted by Glenda Joyce Memmott Black and Beverly Black and consisting of two cassette tapes (four sides) of recorded material. Original cassette tapes are in the author’s possession in 2013. The author has placed digital copies online at Archive.org (https://archive.org/details/1987RecordingSide1).

[45] Elliot R. Black, Elliot R. Black with Excerpts from Family History (No place: No publisher, no date), 121 (Family Reunion of Family of George K. Black and Sarah Lucile Snow, p. 18).

[46] William G. Hartley, “Mormon Sundays,” Ensign, January 1978, 19. “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 10 December 1915, page 5, column 2.

[47] Stories from the Life of Christ for the Primary Department of the Sunday School (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Sunday School Union, 1919).

[48] Sunday Morning in the Kindergarten: Illustrated Lessons for the Kindergarten Department of the Sunday School (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Sunday School Union, 1916).

[49] Parent and Child: A Series of Essays and Lessons for Use in the Parents’ Department of the Latter-day Saints Sunday Schools (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Sunday School Union, 1908), Introduction and Table of Contents.

[50] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 23 October 1914, page 5, column 2.

[51] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 6 November 1914, page 5, column 2.

[52] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 20 August 1915, page 5, column 3.

[53] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 10 December 1915, page 5, column 2.

[54] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 25 August 1916, page 5, column 2.

[55] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 25 August 1916, page 5, column 2.

[56] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger (Manti, Utah), 2 March 1917, page 5, column 2.

[57] “History of Primary,” LDS.org: accessed 14 October 2013.

[58] Elliot R. Black, Elliot R. Black with Excerpts from Family History (No place: No publisher, no date), 15.

[59] Manti Temple, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “Baptisms of the Living, 1888-1972,” entries 115 and 116 for Evin George Black and Eva on 15 March 1917. FHL microfilm 973,405

[60] Manti North Ward, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “Record of Members, 1877-1941,” page 51, entry for Evin George Black in family of George King Black and Sarah Lucile Snow Black. FHL microfilm 26,131. Record indicates that the family moved from the Manti North Ward to the Marion Ward in the Panguitch, Utah stake on 9 March 1918.

[61] “Local and Personal,” Manti Messenger, 15 March 1918, page 7, column 3.